Integrated nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics: Exploring
nanoscale science and technology through semiconductor nanowires
Y. Huang and C. M. Lieber
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts
Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 16-244, Cambridge, MA 02139,USA;
Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551, USA;
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Division of Engineering
and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Abstract: Semiconductor nanowires (NWs)represent an ideal system
for investigating low-dimensional physics and are expected to play an
important role as both interconnects and functional device elements
in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we review a
series of key advances defining a new paradigm of bottom-up assembling
integrated nanosystems using semiconductor NW building blocks. We first
introduce a general approach for the synthesis of a broad range of semiconductor
NWs with precisely controlled chemical composition, physical dimension,
and electronic, optical properties using a metal cluster-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid
growth mechanism. Subsequently, we describe rational strategies for
the hierarchical assembly of NW building blocks into functional devices
and complex architectures based on electric field or micro-fluidic flow.
Next, we discuss a variety of new nanoscale electronic device concepts
including crossed NW p-n diode and crossed NW field effect transistors
(FETs). Reproducible assembly of these scalable crossed NW device elements
enables a catalog of integrated structures, including logic gates and
computational circuits. Lastly, we describe a wide range of photonic
and optoelectronic devices, including nanoscale light-emitting diodes
(nanoLEDs), multicolor LED arrays, integrated nanoLED-nanoFET arrays,
single nanowire waveguide, and single nanowire nanolaser. The potential
application of these nanoscale light sources for chemical and biological
analyses is discussed.
[full text - pdf 1.32MB]
* Pure Appl. Chem. 76,
2051-2099 (2004). A collection of invited, peer-reviewed articles
by the winners of the 2004 IUPAC Prize for Young Chemists.
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