26 No. 6
Electrochemical Detection in Liquid Flow Analytical Techniques: Characterization and Classification (IUPAC Technical Report)
K. Tóth, K. Stulík, W. Kutner, Z. Fehér,
and E. Lindner
Pure and Applied Chemistry
Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 1119–1138, 2004
Since the early 1970s, a large number of papers has been published on different liquid flow analytical techniques. The flow analysis database on the World Wide Web <www.flowinjection.com> lists more than 10 000 references. In 1994, IUPAC classified the analytical methods based on flowing media and defined flow analytical systems, component parts, and terms for describing their performance. Then, fundamentals of analytical aspects of chemical process control were discussed in 1999 and information essential for characterizing a flow-based analytical system has been provided in 2002. The aim of the present report is to extend the existing, recommended, and consistent terminology to electrochemical detection and detectors used in flow analytical techniques with a brief critical overview of the currently used electrochemical flow-through detectors.
Liquid flow analytical techniques are classified, and definitions are provided of flow-injection analysis, segmented flow analysis, flow titration, continuous monitoring, liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Electrochemical detection and flow through detection cells are characterized with respect to the surface and bulk detection. The detector performance is discussed in terms of its principal analytical parameters, such as detection limit and dynamic concentration range, as well as its dynamic characteristics, such as the response time, sampling frequency, transport lag, and long-term stability. Moreover, different detection modes are critically evaluated, including both potentiostatic and galvano-static techniques. Factors influencing sensitivity and detection limit, which include electronic and hydrodynamic approach, are also discussed. Different detector designs are critically reviewed, and the special features of electrochemical detectors for flow analytical techniques are emphasized.
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