Appl. Chem., Vol. 71,
No. 1, pp. 173-191, 1999
Countermeasures for Ice Covered Waters
DF Dickins Associates Ltd.
Salt Spring Is., B.C., Canada
SL Ross Environmental Research Limited
Ottawa, Ont., Canada
Abstract: This chapter describes the state of knowledge regarding
the most applicable countermeasures to deal with oil on, in or among
ice. Countermeasures are discussed in the context of seasonal variations
in ice conditions and observations of oil fate and behaviour in a variety
of different situations. The behaviour of oil spilled in ice covered
waters is governed largely by the ice concentration in the case of broken
ice, and the processes of encapsulation and subsequent migration in
the case of solid (fast) ice). Each season presents different drawbacks
and advantages for spill response. During freezeup and breakup, drifting
ice and limited site access tend to restrict the possible response options
and significantly reduce recovery effectiveness. Mid-winter, although
associated with long periods of darkness and cold temperatures, provides
a stable ice cover that not only naturally contains the oil nearshore
within a relatively small area but also provides a safe working platform
for oil recovery and transport. For the case of spills under or on fast
ice, there are a range of effective countermeasures options which can
result in very high recovery effectiveness. Countermeasures to deal
with spills in moving pack ice are much more limited and likely to result
in highly variable recovery values depending on a variety of natural
conditions and logistics constraints.
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